First, the leaves: generally in the plant's leaf growth is strong, dark green leaves, buds open before harvest, such as Daqingye, basil leaves, leaves and other varieties. Once the plants have blossomed, the nutrients stored in the leaves will be transferred to flowers and fruits, thereby reducing the quality of leafy herbs. There are also a very small number of leafy herbs that should be picked after frost in autumn, such as mulberry leaves, ginkgo biloba, etc., while the cilantro leaves are harvested after falling leaves. Harvesting methods: Picking, cutting or picking.
Second, flowers: flower herbs collection time must pay particular attention, because the general flowering period is short, if the collection time is not a great impact on the quality of herbs. Usually collected when the flowers are open or in awkward conditions, such as inflorescences and chrysanthemums when they are first put; silver flowers, magnolia flowers are used when cultivars are still to be picked up; silk flowers and cloves are taken when they are buds, generally not in flower. Harvesting after harvesting, so when the content of the active ingredient is reduced, the efficacy will be affected, and the petal will fall off easily and the quality will become worse. For example, when the safflower is first opened, it will turn yellow, then it will turn orange, and finally it will become dark red. When it is orange, it will be harvested as good. Harvesting methods: Choose sunny days to pick in batches, pick them up in baskets after picking, avoid squeezing, and pay attention to shade to prevent discoloration.
3. Fruits: Most fruit herbs are harvested when the fruit is fully mature, such as mirrow, yellow peony, barley, pepper, star anise, etc.; some also require fruit ripening after frostbite, such as hawthorn cream after the change Red and Chuanxiongzi are only harvested when they are yellow, and some should be harvested when the fruit is immature, such as green, orange, orange, etc. Medicinal materials with inconsistent fruit ripening periods, such as hawthorn, must be harvested as soon as they are cooked and harvested. Premature harvesting of meat with low yield leads to expired harvested meat floss and poor quality. Juicy berries, such as wolfberry fruit, sorghum, etc., should be squeezed and turned after picking. Harvesting methods: Take or cut. Fruits on the same fruit sequence are mature, such as Ligustrum lucidum, Schisandra chinensis, etc., and the entire inflorescence sequence can be cut, and the fruit can be picked up after a few days.
4. Seeds: Most seed medicines should be harvested when the fruit is fully ripe and the grain is full, such as yakiniku, cassia seed, psoralen, and schizophrenia. Some pods of seeds, if the fruit is completely mature, the pods crack, the seeds lost, difficult to collect, must be harvested earlier, such as impatient son, yamuzi, soybean meal and so on. The medicinal materials that are inconsistent in the maturity of the seed and fall off during mature period, such as psoralen, should be followed along with the harvest. Harvesting methods: Take or cut after harvesting. Dried fruits are generally taken out after drying and the berries are usually collected after being beaten. If flesh is also used for medicinal purposes, flesh can be peeled off first, leaving seeds or fruit cores such as quinones, etc. Some of the flesh can not be used as a medicinal product, such as yuli, almonds, etc.
5. Bark: Relatively, Pi Duo was collected during the Ching Ming period and the summer solstice. At this time, there were more liquid juices in the plants, rapid cell division of the forming layer, easy peeling of the bark, and high content of active ingredients such as Eucommia and Magnolia. Root bark is harvested in winter, such as peony bark and ground bony skin. Some herbs are skinned and can be harvested when harvesting wood. The harvesting method: generally stripped ring or take "skin regeneration" for harvesting.
Six, root bark: harvested with the same rhizomes. First excavate the root from the soil, and then beat or rub to separate the skin from the wood core, such as root barks of Acanthopanax and Polygala.
Roots and roots and stems: When the plants are growing, they will consume nutrients stored in the roots. Therefore, most of them are in the dormant period of plants, that is, harvesting roots and roots and herbs after defoliation in autumn and winter and early spring in early next year. Codonopsis, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Campanulaceae, Dan, Digupi, Qianhu and so on. At this time, the contents of nutrients and active ingredients stored in underground roots and rhizomes are the highest, and harvesting can avoid flowering and convulsions, thereby avoiding hollowness or lignification and losing medicinal value. A few herbs such as Angelica, Angelica, Chuanxiong should be harvested during the growth period. The harvesting period varies from species to species, such as Achyranthes bidentata, Radix Isatidis, etc., which can be excavated in the year of cultivation. Ginseng, Coptis, and American ginseng are cultivated for 4-5 years before they can be harvested. Harvesting methods: Choose sunny days or cloudy days after raining. Use diggers or special tools to dig out when the soil is moist. Care should be taken to keep the root bark intact during digging to avoid damage and to reduce the quality of herbs.
Eight, the whole grass: usually in the lush growth of branches and leaves, early flowers harvest, such as Nepeta, musk, andrographolide, motherwort, plantain, lobelia and so on. However, some should be harvested before flowering, such as Perrin, Artemisia annua, etc.; others are the acquisition of tender seedlings, such as Chunchaihu, etc.; and verbena should be taken after flowering. A very small number of roots should be dug up and used as medicines, such as Northern Asarum and Viola diteri. Harvesting methods: cut or dig.
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