High-efficiency Cultivation Techniques of Exported Chinese Leek Flower

In recent years, the Taiwanese species introduced in Taiwan is widely grown in Guangdong Province. Apart from satisfying the markets of Guangdong, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan, most of the products are exported to the United States, Japan and Canada. They are highly competitive in the international vegetable market and are very Development prospects of export-oriented vegetable varieties. First, the annual characteristics of flower cauliflower The annual cauliflower flower is like a cool, warm growth temperature of 20-28 °C, the temperature is higher than 35 °C or less than 5 °C when the slow growth. Plants can tolerate short-term low temperatures of -5°C. Sustained low or high temperatures and drought can cause the plant to die. The optimum temperature for germination is 15-20°C. The annual blooming flower is bright and bright. Under the condition of sufficient sunlight, the twitching is fast and the twitching is more, but the light is too strong will increase the cellulose, and the product quality is slightly reduced. On the contrary, the illumination is too weak, the photosynthesis is insufficient, the leaves are thin, the delivery is reduced, and the convulsions are delayed. To avoid the acidic soil of leeks and flowers, the pH of the soil is suitable for pH 5.6-6.5, and it can be cultivated in all kinds of soils, but the well-drained loam is the most ideal. Suitable for growing in environments with 60%-70% air humidity and 80%-95% soil moisture. Soil moisture is insufficient and quality is deteriorated; air humidity is prone to disease. If drainage is difficult or in areas with accumulated water, the roots of leeks are rotted, the leaves of the plants yellow and dwarf, the tillers decrease, and they die. During cultivation, organic matter should be added according to the nature of the soil in order to meet its requirements for organic matter, so that the root system develops well to obtain high yield. Second, the cultivation and management techniques 1, suitable for seeding seedlings can be seeded and ramets breeding method can be used in both methods, the anniversary can be sown or bred. At present, seeds are mainly planted and propagated in our province, and it is advisable to plant seedlings in October. Before sowing, immerse seeds in 800-1000-fold solution of potassium permanganate for 4 hours, wash them with clean water, and then soak in fresh water for 24-48 hours. Remove and put them in cloth bags or containers and cover them with cloth. Place germination at 20°C. During germination, wash with water twice a day. After 2 to 3 days, 20% of seeds can be sown. Select slightly acidic and sandy loam soils that are convenient for irrigation and water conservation, and the former is not a scallion or garlic plot. The seeding rate per mu is 4 kg. Before sowing, the seedbed was sun-turned and finely soil-sludgeed, and a suitable amount of decomposed organic fertilizer, calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer and plant ash were applied in combination with soil preparation. Weedy seedbeds can be sprayed with butachlor for 2 days before sowing. Spread the seeds evenly on the surface, then cover with a thin layer of soil, cover the soil to a uniform thickness, cover the surface with a shade net, and soak the water after sowing. After the seeds germinated and unearthed, the shade net was uncovered. Seedlings should be strengthened in management, so that watering, thin fertilization, early weeding and early prevention should be done to facilitate seedling emergence, emergence, and emergence. 2. Early transplantation of early convulsions It is advisable to choose loam plants with deep soil, rich organic matter, loose fertility, and convenient drainage and irrigation. Deep plowing before planting, spreading 2000 kg of organic fertilizer per acre, 50 kg of calcium, magnesium and phosphate fertilizers, mixing the base fertilizer and the soil, and leveling and boring. The width of 1.5 meters is wide and the height is 30 centimeters. Combine soil preparation with 2 kg of Miller granules per acre to prevent ground pests and other underground pests from eating roots. When the leeks are about 50 days old, they can be planted when the seedling height is about 20 cm and 3-4 leaves. Seedlings that have been pulled up from the seedbed should have their roots and leaves cut off before planting. Each hole is planted with 2-3 seedlings, each row is 4 rows, and the row spacing is 40 cm and 30 cm, and 3600-4000 holes are transplanted per mu, and the rooting water is dripping after transplantation. 3, to strengthen the management of fertilizer and water Leek flower growth due to the long period of fertilizer needs, and is resistant to vegetables, timely adequate supply of nutrients to make plants grow robust; easy to premature aging when fertilizer and water shortage, small flower stems. After vegetative growth in the winter and spring after flowering, the chives should be top-dressed in time to grow rhizomes and leaves thick and increase tillering. After planting, fertilizer is usually applied once every 7-10 days, and 5-15 kg compound fertilizer is applied per acre. When entering the leek flower harvesting period, attention should be paid to the rational application of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers, organic fertilizer should be applied more, 200-500 kg organic fertilizer per mu, and 10-15 kg compound fertilizer, which can be combined with cultivating and weeding for topdressing. To keep the soil moist during the whole growth period of the leeks, the long-term drought will reduce the tillering, and the leaves and pods will shrink, affecting the yield. Therefore, it is necessary to water in time when drought, but also can divert water into the ditch for irrigation, but the ditch water level should be less than 25 cm above the surface. When raining, attention should be paid to timely drainage and flood prevention. If it is under severe flooding for a long time, it will cause root rot, yellow leaves, sharp drop in tillering, and severe plant death. Pay attention to cultivating, weeding and earth-cultivation, and transplanting plants in appropriate and timely manner. When pests and diseases are controlled, care should be taken to alternate use of pesticides. Third, timely harvesting Leek flower breeding transplants or ramets transplanted after planting 2 months, that is, in the following year in January began to extract a small amount of calyx, after March into the output increased significantly until October are all high-yield period, in which In particular, the highest output in July-August, the daily output per mu more than 30 kg. November - In February of the following year, due to the low temperature, the yield was low, but the quality was better. When the young flower buds are about 35-40 cm long, the harvest time is appropriate when the top calyx turns from flat to micro-bulging. The calyx calyx is very fast and can be harvested once a day at harvest, and harvested once every 2-3 days at low temperatures. Late harvesting can cause the calyx to age, affecting quality and commodity value.

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