Biological characteristics of smallmouth lice and breeding techniques

Smallmouth lice are also known as soil lice, squid, annual fish, pond mullet, pond horn fish, soil plover, and broodstock. Their scientific name is cricket. Small economic fishes are similar in appearance to large mouth fishes. Widely distributed in our country, the meat is delicate, less meat and more thorns, more fat, higher nutritional value, physical frailty, the elderly, patients after surgery, food to restore physical support has a good supporting role, maternal consumption can act as prolactin Increase milk effect. First, the morphological characteristics of small mouth lice small mouth lice body length, side flat, general body length 25 to 40 cm, the front was cylindrical, flat back. The head is flat, the kiss is short, wide, round, and the length of the kiss is significantly smaller than the length of the head behind the eyes. The mouth of Ya Ya is superior, wide, curved, lip pleats developed, the end of the eye up to the vertical line. Before the jaw slightly protrudes from the upper jaw, the upper and lower jaws have fine hairy teeth. The eyes are small and the distance between the eyes is smaller than the length of the eyes. Must be 2 pairs, maxillary to the end of the pectoral fin. The body of the fish is bare, smooth and scaleless, and the skin is mucus rich and has mucus pores. The lateral line is completely straight, the dorsal fins are short, and there are no hard thorns. The starting point is closer to the base of the caudal fin than the snout end. The pectoral fins are fan-shaped and smaller, with hard lancets. The pelvic fins are small and the ends exceed the starting point of the anal fin The base of the anal fin is long, with the starting point close to the pelvic fin and the rear end connected to the caudal fin. No fat fins, short tail fins, slightly concave. The back and sides of the body are grayish black or dark brown, abdomen grayish, dorsal fins, anal fins, caudal fins grayish black, pectoral fins, pelvic fins grayish white. Smaller individuals often have cloud patches. Second, living habits and feeding habits The small-mouthed quail is a kind of pleasing open-water life. The smaller individual economic fishes mainly inhabit the rivers, or larger tributaries, large lakes and reservoirs. Its adaptability is strong, likes benthic life, grows nocturnal, is carnivorous fish, the main food in the fry period is zooplankton, benthic animal and oligochaete; in the adult stage it mainly eats small fish ( Such as squid, squid, etc.), oligarchs, freshwater shellfish and aquatic insect larvae. Reduce food in winter without stopping eating. Third, the growth characteristics of small larvae grow faster, 1 to 2 years of body length is about 29 cm, weighing about 360 grams; 3 to 4 years of body length is about 40 cm, weighing about 530 grams. The growth rate is faster during the period of 1 to 2 years, and then gradually slows down. Females grow faster than males. 4. Breeding habits Small-mouthed, one-year-old fish (about 20 cm in length) can reach sexual maturity. The 2-3 year old fish is dominant in the spawning population, and its spawning population is smaller, with a ratio of 3:1. Female ovary is a pair of oblong capsules, immature eggs are light yellow, and mature eggs are green. The egg diameter of fish eggs is about 1.4-1.8 mm, and the number of eggs in common individuals ranges from thousands to 10,000 grains. Eggs are strongly sticky, and spawning grounds are mostly distributed in tributaries or on the banks of aquatic plants and reefs. Fish eggs adhere to aquatic plants and reefs. In the same river section, the fish in the tributaries are spawned later than the fish in the main stream. The spawning period of the small oysters is also slightly different in different places and different river sections. In the Jialing River, spawning began when the water temperature reached 16~22°C in late March, and its spawning period was longer, with multiple spawning habits. Fifth, the difference between the small-mouthed seedlings and the big-mouthed larvae The small-mouthed lice have a short split, and the ends reach below the front of the eyeball. However, the larvae of large larvae are long and the ends reach below the middle and posterior parts of the eyeball; the front end of the small mouth lice is not obvious. Coarse, the whole body is uniform and long strips. The anterior segment of the body of the bigmouth bass is obviously thicker, the body behind the anus is smaller and evenly thin; the caudal fins of the smallmouth fin are equal in length from top to bottom, and the size is not significantly different. The upper lobe is longer than the lower lobe, slightly narrower and slightly pointed; the second jaw of the small-mouthed louse must have been degraded when the body length is less than 80 mm, while the second mandible must be present when the body length is 100-150 mm. Sixth, the smallmouth bream breeding technology 1, the construction of the fish pond fish pond area of ​​5 to 10 square meters, the stone built into a pool embankment, the bottom of the cement floor, set the injection, drainage doors, water depth of about 1 meter. Spawning and hatching pools: The area is 3 to 5 square meters, and the Chiba stone is built. The inner surface of the pool embankment is leveled with cement, and the bottom of the pool is made of cement. Water injection gates and drainage doors are provided. The water depth is about 0.5 to 1 meter. The spawning pool can double as the hatching pool. The broodstock can be hatched after the broodstock has produced the eggs. Seedlings rearing pool: an area of ​​10 to 20 square meters, the pool embankment for the stone, muddy bottom or cement bottom, water depth of 1 to 1.5 meters, with water injection doors and drainage doors, convenient water sources, easy to adjust water quality. Adult fish rearing pool: The area of ​​660-1980 square meters of stone embankment or earthen pond can be, but it must not leak water. The bottom of the pool is muddy and the water depth is 1 to 1.6 meters. It is easy to adjust the water quality by setting the drainage gate. If the earth pond embankment, the top dam width of 0.8 to 1 meters, the bottom width of 1.2 to 1.6 meters, must be water, built in a convenient place for water. 2. Cultivation of fry From the rivers and their tributaries, catch broodstock with a body weight of 250 g or more and a good maturity. Since the amount of eggs in small owls is directly proportional to individual size, large and medium broodstock should be selected, which is extremely important for raising hatching rate and survival rate of fry. Before spawning, preparations for spawning of fish nests are well prepared. The well-prepared palm tree pieces and polyethylene gel strings are tied together with bamboo rods into fish nests, and placed in cages made of polyethylene to lay eggs. The area of ​​cages and spawning pools is equal, which facilitates the nesting of the entire cage into the spawning pool and prevents the brooders from laying eggs on the pond walls and affecting the hatching rate of the eggs. Choose sunny days, water temperature above 190C for aphrodisiac spawning. The water temperature is appropriate, generally 13 to 14 hours after injection, see the male and female broodstock in the cage near the "fish nest" estrus chase oviposition, egg laying time is about 2 to 3 hours. Eggs are sticky, and the size of eggs is small. The number of mature eggs of 1 g eggs is about 1000 to 11000 eggs. The next day after the eggs are laid, the broodstock is gently caught and placed in postpartum brood pools for postpartum intensive cultivation to restore the broodstock's constitution. The fish eggs continue to hatch in the original egg box, and hatched flowers are still kept in cages. At a water temperature of 19 to 20.50C, the fish eggs hatched after 75 hours. The yolk sac gradually disappeared after just 3 to 4 days after the film was sprayed. The hatching ability of the newly hatched seedlings was weak, and they could swim horizontally in 1 week. , so most of the time is still attached to the dark pool wall or pool corner. The third day of fry hatching starts with the feeding of rotifers and small blisters. The large blisters must be sieved out with a 60 mesh nylon sieve before feeding the leeches. 0.1 g of the rotifers and oysters before they are fed must be sieved. The copper sulfate is sterilized and then sprinkled with water. Daily feeding 2 to 3 times, 1 in the morning, afternoon and evening. Every 10,000 fish fry are fed 50 to 100 grams of leeches, and the amount of fish fed increases as the body of fish increases. Small-mouthed seedlings are reared in separate ponds after 15 to 20 days of fry rearing, and large, medium, and small fish are screened out by fish, and pooled individually or mixed with salmon fry. 3. Breeding of fingerlings The smolt seedlings of small species can be transferred to the fingerling cultivation stage after 15 to 20 days of cultivation. The temperature of pooling and pooling when sub-pooling should be less than 2 to 30C, and the water level of the fingerling pools should increase with individual fish. Gradually deepen, its amplitude is about 0.4 ~ 0.6 ~ 1.3 meters. Fish rearing density is 20 to 40 per square meter. Feeding live bait for the main prey, (rotifers, leeches), can be fed with large leeches, leeches and bait 3 times in the later period, and once in the morning, afternoon and evening, with a feeding amount of 10,000. The seedlings were filled with 150 to 500 grams of water, with the body length of the fish increased to 5 to 6 centimeters, and once a day, the water scorpion was added, and 0.5 to 1.5 kilograms per 10,000 fry were cast. When the body length is increased to 10 cm, in addition to the cast of water, artificial feeds can be added one after the other. With the proportion of bait: fish meal accounted for 25%, corn flour accounted for 20%, three powder accounted for 20%, wheat bran accounted for 10%, bean cake or cake accounted for 20%, bone meal accounted for 5%. Pre-granulated pellets were fed. Timely, fixed-point, positioning, and qualitative feeding. It is fed 3 times a day, in the morning, afternoon and evening, the amount of feeding is 3% to 5% of the fish's body weight, and the fish species is 12 to 15 centimeters in length to be transferred into adult fish ponds, rice fields, reservoirs, etc. fish. 4. Aquaculture of commercial fish (1) The area of ​​single-culture pond for commercial fish is 0.1-0.5 mu, the water level is 0.9-1.5 meters, and the water source is sufficient. The fish pond is provided with a water injection and drainage system, and it is convenient to adjust the water quality. Fish species size 50 to 100 g/tail, 5 fish reared per square meter of water, and the time for releasing seedlings is at the end of June and beginning of July. In combination with feed (if fish species are captured from rivers, they should be trained to eat first), and feed three times daily, one each in the morning, afternoon and evening. The daily feeding amount accounts for 5% of body weight in May-June; 7-8 months accounts for 6% of body weight; 9- 10 months accounts for 10% of body weight. (2) Polyculture of commercial fish In order to make full use of the natural food in the water body, it is better to adopt polyculture with small oysters and squid. The polyculture ratio is: in the water body per square meter, the stocking size is 50 to 100 g/tail for 5 small-tailed breams; the size is 25 to 30 gram/tail cod for 3 tails; the size is 30 to 40 g/head for cockroaches Fish 2 tails. After training, artificial feeds are fed and fed three times a day. In the morning, afternoon and evening, the amount of feed is 5-10% of the total body weight of the fish. By the second year of autumn, the small mouth can weigh up to 200. ~ 400 grams. 5. During day-to-day management and culture, fishponds should be prevented from causing oxygen deficiency and causing floating heads and death. Every 7 to 10 days should be filled with fresh water. The fish should be treated with quicklime to disinfect the pond 7-10 days before entering the pond; the smallmouth bream should be dipped with drugs before entering the pond. After entering the pond, the water body should be sterilized and sterilized 3 times per month. Sprinkle with 1 g of bleach. Adhere to regular, qualitative, quantitative, fixed-point feeding. Regular inspection of the fish's growth and fullness facilitates the development of the next phase of strengthening measures. During commercial fish culture, furazolidone and other drugs should be added regularly to the feed to prevent enteritis, gill rot and other diseases.

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