Main Diseases and Insect Pests of Wheat and Technical Proposal of "One Spray and Three Preventions"

According to the analysis and prediction by the plant protection department, in 2012, the main diseases and pests in the wheat field in our province were generally moderately heavy, with wheat stigma occurring at a large scale; wheat midge weighting moderately occurring and local occurrence occurring; wheat sheath blight, root rot, and powdery mildew occurring moderately; Fusarium head blight in wheat crops in southern central and eastern parts of the country has a heavy trend; wheat stripe rust due to the large amount of bacteria in the field, if the climate is appropriate in May, in the south-central wheat region in our province is still possible. In order to control pests and diseases in a timely manner, and achieve the goal of “Nine Lianfeng” and strive for “nine consecutive increase” in grain production proposed by the Ministry of Agriculture and the provincial government, the following technical proposals for prevention and control are proposed:

First, strengthen the dynamic monitoring of pests and diseases to ensure that the information is accurate and released. The province has a large span in the north and south, and the types and timing of wheat pests and diseases in different regions are not consistent, and the growth and development of wheat are also quite different. Therefore, all localities must strengthen the dynamic monitoring of pests and diseases, in particular to monitor the major pests and diseases such as wheat midge, wheat bran, powdery mildew, stripe rust, and leaf blight, so that early warning, accurate forecasting, timely forecasting, and These channels and methods timely release pest information and guide farmers to conduct scientific prevention and control work.

Second, scientifically guide disease prevention and control to ensure control effect

(A) wheat stripe rust. Entering May is the key period for the occurrence and prevention of wheat stripe rust. It is required to follow the strategy of “accurate monitoring, drug discovery, discovery, prevention and control” and try to find out and prevent it early. It must not cause contagion and harm. If leaf rust occurs at the jointing or booting stage of wheat, when the average diseased leaf rate in the field reaches 0.5% to 1%, it should be immediately controlled. The use of diniconazole, triadimefon, and propiconazole for spray control can be used to emphasize spraying uniformity. . The law also cures powdery mildew and so on.

(b) Wheat powdery mildew. Wheat booting stage to heading stage is the peak period of wheat powdery mildew. When the diseased leaf rate in the field reached 10% to 20%, diclofenac, tebuconazole, triadimefon and other sprays were used. In the early stage of disease, it is also possible to use a bactericide such as carbendazim, thiophanate-methyl, sulfur suspending agent and other protective fungicides.

(c) Wheat midge. Special emphasis was placed on the prevention and control of poisonous soil in the flood season, and on this basis, prevention and control of adult insect pests of the insect pests should be carried out. The heading stage of wheat (early May) is the early stage of feather emergence of adult midge insects. There are 10 to 20 adult insects every 10 times, or you can open the wheat ridges with both hands. When one or two adults can see 2 or 3 heads, use low toxicity immediately. Organic phosphorus, pyrethroids, carbamates and other agents spray control. The recurrence area should be controlled twice in a row, separated by 3 days, and the adult should be eliminated before spawning.

(d) Wheat aphids. In early May, wheat aphids began to transfer from the lower leaves to the panicle. When the amount of 100-tree strains in the field amounts to 500-800 heads, when the ratio of natural enemy units to wheat-grass ratio exceeds 1:200 (more than 200 heads of wheat aphids), low-toxic organophosphates, pyrethroids or pymetrozine can be used. , imidacloprid spray control. In these liquids can be added cynidazole alcohol, tebuconazole, triadimefon or bactericide and other fungicides mixed spray, can control stripe rust, powdery mildew, sheath blight, leaf blight and so on.

Third, the timely defense of dry hot wind and premature senescence, ensure that the wheat harvest bumper wheat grain filling period is the key period for grain production. In order to effectively prolong the function of the wheat flag leaf and ensure that wheat is “live”, special attention should be paid to the dangers of defense against dry hot wind during this period. When the dry hot winds that are exposed to temperatures above 30°C, winds above 3, and air relative humidity below 30% are harmful, the requirements for wheat maturity and wheat filling period must be met, and timely application of plant growth regulators and leaves Surface fertilizers, etc., adjust and supplement the relevant elements and fertility nutrition standards required by wheat grouting to achieve the combined effects of resisting dry hot air, preventing premature aging and increasing grain weight.

Fourth, science drugs, to ensure the quality and safety of wheat in accordance with the "public plant protection, green plant protection," the concept of strict adherence to the "Pesticide Safety Guidelines" to be used for different safety intervals of different types of pesticides, the actual use of medication time and medication methods. For the prevention and control of exceeding the prevention and control indicators, the local agricultural technicians should guide the farmers to use drugs scientifically, and they must prevent and treat the wheat blindly before the harvest with the permission of the safe use of pesticides. It is necessary to monitor and control the residue standards for pesticide control as an important indicator to ensure the safety of agricultural environment, the safety of wheat production and quality and safety.

V. Practically Doing a Good Job in Wheat “One Spray and Three Preventions” Work The wheat filling period is a critical period for grain production and production increase. It is the main task of the prevention and control work to ensure that late-season wheat does not suffer from dry heat and pests. From May 1st to May 10th, the “one spray and three defenses” work of wheat in the province began from south to north. The general year is from 1 to 5 days south of Shijiazhuang, May 5 to 10th from May to the north of Shijiazhuang, Hengshui and east of Wuzhou. District May 3-8. The main contents of “one spray and three defenses” are: prevention and treatment of disease (bleebris, powdery mildew, head blight, etc.), insects (maize clams, adult insects of midge), resistance to dry hot air, and prevention of premature aging. All localities must adapt to local conditions, classify and guide, and scientifically use drugs. In light of the types of local diseases and pests and their growth and decline, they should effectively grasp the prevention and control indicators and guide farmers to do a reasonable mix of pesticides, fungicides, plant growth regulators, and foliar fertilizers. Application of technology, timely implementation of wheat "one spray and three defenses" work, emphasizing spray thoroughly through, do not cherish the water does not hesitate to drug.

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